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Amidst deforestation talks in Brazil, a movement grows against expanding oil and gas exploration in the Amazon rainforest.

As South American leaders gathered in Brazil this week for a summit on deforestation, they were met by a burgeoning movement advocating an end to oil and gas development in the Amazon, the world's largest tropical rainforest.

Efforts to expand drilling in the Amazon basin have grown in recent years. The push by governments and oil companies to replace waning production from older fields has led to concern. A report from environmental group Earth InSight highlighted that current and upcoming projects encompass about 250,000 square miles of pristine forest, home to more than 12 million people.

Recent developments have spurred activists and Indigenous groups to act. Notably, Colombian President Gustavo Petro penned an op-ed last month urging Amazon nations to halt oil and gas projects within the rainforest. Brazil's environmental agency also made headlines by rejecting a drilling proposal close to the Amazon River's mouth.

Ecuador, the main exporter of Amazonian crude, faces a pivotal moment this month. According to Inside Climate News, a national referendum is slated for August 20 to determine the future of an expansive oil field located within a national park. The government's efforts to augment oil and gas exploration have met with resistance, dividing indigenous communities on the issue.

Oil-related activities have left a lasting impact on the region. Numerous spills across Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia have contaminated natural habitats, endangering both humans and wildlife. A recent Peruvian study underscored this threat, revealing significant toxic metal concentrations in indigenous populations near oil facilities.

“The movement is saying, if we need to stop fossil fuels globally, then the Amazon should be the place where we start,” said Alex Rafalowicz, global director for a coalition of environmental groups that are campaigning for a “fossil fuel non-proliferation treaty” that would commit nations to phasing out production.

Despite the environmental concerns, national governments seem bent on expanding drilling. Although the Amazon basin contributes only 2% to the world's oil supply, its economic significance to nations like Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia is undeniable.

In addressing this challenge, Colombian President Petro proposed that Western nations support the Amazon's transition away from fossil fuels. This could be facilitated through an environmental fund and measures such as debt relief.

However, a report by painted a contrasting picture. It identified major Western banks as the principal financiers of Amazon oil ventures.

Indigenous leaders are championing an alternative economic vision, emphasizing a "bioeconomy" rooted in the Amazon's rich biodiversity. While the summit ended without a consensus on ending fossil fuel dependency, it has opened doors for ongoing dialogue and collaboration in the coming years.

Eunice is a sustainability writer whose passion is sharing accessible eco-friendly practices with GreenCitizen's global readership. She enjoys birdwatching during her downtime, often deriving inspiration from nature's resilience. An enthusiastic cyclist, she is also an ardent advocate of eco-friendly transport.

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