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Dive into the world of aquaponics greenhouses, where modern agriculture meets sustainability, offering a solution to our ever-growing food demands. Discover how this innovative fusion can revolutionize your farming experience, yielding bountiful harvests while championing eco-friendly practices.

The concept of an aquaponics greenhouse is not new, but its significance in sustainable farming is increasingly recognized. By merging aquaculture with hydroponics, this system offers a balanced approach to growing plants and fish in a shared environment. In this guide, I aim to provide a clear and concise overview of aquaponics within a greenhouse setting. From understanding its basic principles to exploring the practicalities of setting one up, this article will offer insights for both newcomers and those familiar with greenhouse practices. Let's delve into the details of this integrated farming method.

The Basics of Aquaponics

Aquaponics, at its core, is an integrated farming method that combines aquaculture (raising fish) with hydroponics (growing plants without soil). This sustainable farming technique harnesses the symbiotic relationship between fish and plants, creating a closed-loop system where both can flourish.

The history of aquaponics can be traced back to ancient civilizations. The Aztecs, for instance, utilized a similar system called "chinampas," where they cultivated plants on floating rafts in shallow lakes. In more recent times, the potential of aquaponics has been recognized and refined, especially as concerns about eco-friendly farming and sustainable food sources have come to the forefront.

The basic components of an aquaponics system are relatively straightforward:

Fish Tank

This is where the fish live. Common fish used in aquaponics include tilapia and goldfish, but the choice largely depends on the climate and the farmer's goals.

Fish tank for aquaponics

Grow Bed

Plants are grown here, directly benefiting from the nutrient-rich water provided by the fish waste. Plants suitable for aquaponics range from leafy greens to certain fruits.

Water Circulation System

This ensures that the water, filled with nutrients from fish waste, is continuously pumped from the fish tank to the grow beds. The plants absorb these nutrients, purifying the water, which is then returned to the fish tank.


Beneficial bacteria play a crucial role by converting ammonia from fish waste into nitrates, which plants can absorb as a nutrient source.

In essence, fish provide the nutrients plants need, and in return, plants clean and filter the water for the fish. It's a harmonious cycle that mimics natural ecosystems, making aquaponics a standout in the realm of sustainable farming methods.

By understanding the basics of aquaponics, one can appreciate its significance in today's agricultural landscape, especially as the world leans more towards organic farming and eco-friendly practices.

Can You Do Aquaponics in a Greenhouse?

Absolutely, integrating aquaponics within a greenhouse is not only feasible but also offers a myriad of benefits that enhance the efficiency of both systems. Merging these two methods creates a controlled environment that optimizes the conditions for year-round farming, regardless of external weather patterns.

One of the primary advantages of housing an aquaponics system inside a greenhouse is temperature control. Fish, especially species like tilapia, thrive in specific temperature ranges. A greenhouse ensures that these temperatures remain consistent, promoting healthier fish and, consequently, a more nutrient-rich water supply for the plants.

Moreover, a greenhouse provides protection against potential pests and diseases, reducing the need for chemical interventions. This aligns with the principles of organic farming, where the goal is to produce food without synthetic additives. By keeping external threats at bay, plants in an aquaponics greenhouse are less likely to face issues like pest infestations or fungal diseases.

Additionally, the controlled environment of a greenhouse allows for more precise water circulation management. This is crucial for the success of an aquaponics system, as efficient water circulation ensures that plants receive the nutrients they need while simultaneously purifying the water for the fish.

In conclusion, combining aquaponics with greenhouse farming is a match made in agricultural heaven. It amplifies the benefits of both systems, leading to healthier plants and fish, increased yields, and a more sustainable approach to farming. For those keen on eco-friendly farming practices, this integration is certainly worth considering.

Can you do aquaponics in a greenhouse

Advantages of an Aquaponics Greenhouse

The fusion of aquaponics with greenhouse structures has revolutionized sustainable farming, offering a plethora of benefits that cater to both novice gardeners and seasoned agriculturalists. Let's delve into the myriad advantages that an aquaponics greenhouse brings to the table:

Year-Round Farming

One of the most significant benefits of a greenhouse is the ability to farm throughout the year, irrespective of external weather conditions. Whether it's the biting cold of winter or the scorching heat of summer, your plants and fish remain protected, ensuring consistent yields.

Increased Yield

With optimal conditions maintained, plants in an aquaponics greenhouse often grow faster and healthier. The continuous supply of nutrient-rich water, combined with controlled temperatures, can significantly boost plant growth, leading to higher yields.


Aquaponics is a standout in eco-friendly farming practices. By recycling water, it uses up to 90% less than traditional farming methods. When housed in a greenhouse, this system's sustainability is further enhanced, reducing the need for external resources and minimizing waste.

Space Efficiency

Aquaponics systems are known for their space-saving designs. In a greenhouse setting, vertical farming techniques can be employed, allowing for the cultivation of more plants in a limited area.

Vertical farming in an aquaponics greenhouse

Reduced Pesticide Use

The controlled environment of a greenhouse minimizes the invasion of pests. This, combined with the natural deterrents present in aquaponic systems, drastically reduces the need for chemical pesticides, aligning with organic farming principles.

Water Conservation

In an era where water scarcity is a growing concern, aquaponics shines. The closed-loop system recycles water, ensuring minimal wastage. Within a greenhouse, evaporation rates are also reduced, further conserving this precious resource.

Diverse Crop Selection

With a stable environment, a wider variety of plants can be grown. From leafy greens to fruits and even some root vegetables, the options are vast. Plus, with the added benefit of aquaculture, you get a protein source from the fish.

Reduced Soil-Borne Diseases

Since aquaponics does away with soil, the chances of soil-borne diseases are virtually eliminated. The greenhouse environment further ensures that external pathogens are kept at bay.

Economic Benefits

While the initial setup cost might be on the higher side, the long-term economic benefits are undeniable. Reduced water usage, minimal need for fertilizers and pesticides, and higher yields can lead to significant savings and potentially higher profits.

Disadvantages of an Aquaponics Greenhouse

While an aquaponics greenhouse offers a multitude of benefits, it's essential to approach the topic with a balanced perspective. Like any system, there are challenges and potential pitfalls that one should be aware of. Here are some of the disadvantages associated with integrating aquaponics into a greenhouse:

Initial Setup Costs

Setting up an aquaponics system within a greenhouse can be capital-intensive. From purchasing tanks, grow beds, and water circulation systems to the greenhouse structure itself, the initial investment can be daunting for many.

Complexity and Learning Curve

Aquaponics is a blend of two disciplines: aquaculture and hydroponics. For those new to either (or both), there's a steep learning curve. Understanding the needs of both plants and fish, and ensuring a harmonious balance, can be challenging.


While the system is designed to be self-sustaining to a degree, regular maintenance is crucial. Monitoring water pH levels, checking for potential pests, and ensuring the health of both plants and fish require consistent attention.

Energy Costs

The water circulation system, heating elements (if used), and other components require electricity. In areas where power is expensive or not consistently available, this can pose challenges and increase operational costs.

Potential Pests and Diseases

While the closed environment of a greenhouse reduces the risk of pests, it doesn't eliminate it. Aphids, whiteflies, or certain fungal diseases can still pose threats. Additionally, fish are susceptible to diseases, which can disrupt the aquaponics cycle.

System Failures

Any mechanical or electrical component can fail. A pump malfunction or a sudden loss of power can jeopardize the entire system, potentially leading to loss of fish or plant crops.

Limitations on Crop Variety

While a diverse range of plants can be grown, not all crops are suited for aquaponics. Root vegetables, for instance, can be more challenging to cultivate in standard aquaponic setups.

Limitations on crop variety like root crops

Water Quality Management

Ensuring the water remains nutrient-rich without becoming toxic for the fish is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or overstocking fish can lead to water quality issues that harm both fish and plants.

Considerations for Aquaponics Greenhouses

Embarking on the journey of establishing an aquaponics greenhouse is exciting, but it's essential to plan meticulously. Several factors can influence the success of your venture. Here's a checklist for potential aquaponics greenhouse owners, ensuring you cover all bases:


Ensure the greenhouse receives adequate sunlight, crucial for plant growth. It should also be easily accessible for regular maintenance and monitoring. Lastly, choose a location shielded from strong winds or potential flooding.

Adequate sunlight for aquaponics greenhouse

Water Source

The water should be free from harmful chemicals. Avoid using chlorinated water directly. You should also ensure a consistent water source, vital for the aquaponics system's sustainability.

Fish Selection

Choose fish species that thrive in your region's climate. Tilapia, for instance, prefers warmer temperatures. You should also consider how quickly the fish grow and their market demand if you plan to sell them.
Also, some fish require more care than others. Research their needs thoroughly.

Plant Selection

While many plants thrive in aquaponics, some, like root vegetables, can be challenging. Opt for plants suitable for aquaponics like leafy greens or certain fruits. If selling produce, consider what's in demand in your local market.

Leafy green for aquaponics greenhouse

System Design

The design should accommodate your goals, whether it's for personal consumption or commercial selling. Design the system to be adaptable, allowing for potential expansions or modifications.


Factor in the costs of setting up the greenhouse, purchasing equipment, and acquiring fish and plants. Also consider ongoing expenses like electricity, fish feed, and potential replacements for equipment.

Training and Knowledge

Before diving in, consider attending workshops or courses on aquaponics and greenhouse management. Also invest in good reference materials for troubleshooting and continuous learning.

Backup Systems

Have backup power solutions, like generators, to prevent system failures during outages. Also, establish procedures for potential issues like disease outbreaks or equipment malfunctions.

Environmental Impact

Ensure your practices align with eco-friendly farming principles, minimizing waste and resource consumption.

Community and Support

Connect with other aquaponics enthusiasts and experts. They can offer invaluable advice, support, and resources.

Greenhouse Types and Their Suitability for Aquaponics

Choosing the right greenhouse structure is pivotal for the success of an aquaponics system. The design can influence factors like temperature control, space utilization, and overall system efficiency. Let's delve into some popular greenhouse structures and evaluate their compatibility with aquaponics:

Hoop Houses

These are one of the most common choices for those new to greenhouse farming. Made using a series of large hoops covered with a plastic or fabric membrane, hoop houses are relatively simple to set up. Their design allows for good ventilation, which can be beneficial for plant growth in an aquaponics system. However, their lightweight construction might not be ideal in areas with strong winds or heavy snowfall.

A hoop-type greenhouse


Characterized by their triangular shape, A-frame greenhouses are both functional and aesthetically pleasing. Their design is particularly suited for places with heavy snowfall, as the snow slides off the sloped sides. The vertical space can be utilized for aquaponics, especially for growing climbing plants. However, the ground space might be limited, potentially restricting the size of fish tanks.

An a-frame type greenhouse

Geodesic Domes

These spherical structures are a marvel of modern architecture and engineering. Geodesic domes offer maximum sunlight exposure, ensuring plants receive ample light throughout the day. Their sturdy design can withstand extreme weather conditions, making them ideal for regions with unpredictable climates. However, their unique shape can pose challenges when setting up an aquaponics system, especially when optimizing space.

Quonset Greenhouses

Quonset greenhouses, resembling robust versions of hoop houses, are constructed with steel frames and typically covered with materials like polyethylene or polycarbonate. Their sturdier build offers enhanced protection against inclement weather, making them a reliable choice. The curved design of Quonset greenhouses also ensures efficient space utilization, which can be beneficial for aquaponics setups. However, their limited height can pose challenges for vertical aquaponics systems. Additionally, due to their robust nature, they might require additional ventilation systems to prevent overheating, especially in warmer climates.

Gothic Arch Greenhouses

Distinguished by their pointed arch shape, Gothic Arch greenhouses are a favorite in regions prone to heavy snowfall. The design ensures that snow slides off easily, preventing any significant accumulation that could damage the structure. The added height from the pointed design offers more vertical space, which can be advantageous for aquaponics setups. On the downside, the construction of Gothic Arch greenhouses can be slightly intricate due to their unique design, potentially leading to higher initial costs and a more extended setup phase.

A gothic arch-type greenhouse

Sawtooth Greenhouses

The defining feature of Sawtooth greenhouses is their roof design, reminiscent of a saw blade. These greenhouses, equipped with vertical sidewalls, offer ample space for aquaponics systems. The series of vents at the top provide excellent ventilation, a crucial aspect for maintaining a healthy aquaponics environment. However, due to their intricate design, Sawtooth greenhouses might be more suitable for larger operations. The complexity also implies potentially higher construction costs compared to simpler greenhouse designs.

A sawtooth-type greenhouse

Lean-To Greenhouses

As structures attached to an existing building, like a home or barn, Lean-To greenhouses are perfect for those with space constraints. They present an efficient use of available space and can tap into the existing infrastructure, possibly leading to cost savings. However, their attached nature means they are limited in size, which might restrict the scale of the aquaponics system. Additionally, regulating temperature can be a challenge, especially if the shared wall with the existing structure retains heat or cold.

Cold Frame Greenhouses

Resembling compact boxes close to the ground, Cold Frame greenhouses are ideal for small-scale aquaponics setups or for starting seedlings. Their compact nature makes them economical and easy to manage. However, their size also means they offer limited space, which can restrict the scope of the aquaponics system. Being closer to the ground, they might not provide adequate protection against more extreme weather conditions, making them more suitable for milder climates or seasonal use.

Tips for Designing an Aquaponics Greenhouse

Designing an aquaponics greenhouse requires a blend of creativity and practicality. It's not just about housing plants and fish; it's about creating a harmonious environment where both can thrive. Here are some essential tips to consider when designing your aquaponics greenhouse:

Optimize Space

Make the most of the available area by considering vertical farming techniques. This allows for the cultivation of more plants without compromising on the space needed for fish tanks. Remember, a well-planned layout can significantly boost your yield.

Ensure Proper Lighting

While natural sunlight is the best source of light for plants, sometimes it might not be enough, especially during shorter winter days. Consider supplemental lighting options, such as LED grow lights, to ensure your plants receive the necessary light for photosynthesis.

LED grow lights for aquaponics greenhouse

Maintain Temperature

Fish and plants have specific temperature needs. Invest in a good quality heating or cooling system to regulate the greenhouse's temperature. Automated systems can monitor and adjust the temperature, ensuring it remains within the desired range.

Maintain temperature in an aquaponics greenhouse

Incorporate Efficient Water Circulation

An efficient water circulation system is the heart of an aquaponics setup. Ensure that the water, filled with nutrients from fish waste, is continuously pumped from the fish tank to the grow beds and back.

Plan for Ventilation

Proper ventilation is crucial to prevent overheating and ensure a continuous supply of fresh air. Consider installing roof vents or automated exhaust fans to maintain optimal air circulation.

Plan for ventilation in an aquaponics greenhouse

Choose Suitable Flooring

While gravel or porous concrete can be ideal for drainage, consider the ease of cleaning and maintenance. A clean floor reduces the risk of pests and diseases.


Design your greenhouse in a way that all areas are easily accessible. This will make tasks like feeding fish, harvesting plants, or performing maintenance checks much more manageable.

Safety First

Ensure all electrical installations, like pumps or lights, are safely installed. Waterproofing and using ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) can prevent potential electrical hazards.

How to Build Your Own Aquaponics Greenhouse

Building your own aquaponics greenhouse can be a rewarding endeavor, allowing you to cultivate fresh produce and fish in a sustainable manner. Here's a step-by-step guide to help you set up your very own aquaponics haven:

1. Select the Right Location

Begin by choosing a location that receives ample sunlight, preferably 6-8 hours a day. Ensure the area is shielded from strong winds and potential flooding. The site should also be easily accessible for regular maintenance and monitoring.

2. Choose the Greenhouse Structure

Based on your budget, space, and regional climate, decide on the type of greenhouse structure. Whether it's a Hoop House, A-Frame, or a Geodesic Dome, ensure it aligns with the needs of your aquaponics system.

3. Lay the Foundation

Once the location is finalized, prepare the ground. Remove any debris, level the ground, and consider laying gravel or porous concrete for efficient drainage. Ensure the foundation is sturdy to support the weight of fish tanks and grow beds.

4. Construct the Greenhouse

Follow the instructions specific to your chosen greenhouse type. Ensure the structure is stable, and all joints are sealed to maintain temperature and humidity levels.

5. Set Up the Aquaponics System

  • Fish Tank: Place the fish tank in a location where it's easily accessible. Ensure it's level and stable.
  • Grow Beds: Position the grow beds above or adjacent to the fish tank, depending on your design. Ensure they have a medium like expanded clay pellets or gravel.
  • Water Circulation: Install a pump to move water from the fish tank to the grow beds. Ensure there's a return system, either through gravity or an additional pump, to channel water back into the fish tank.

6. Introduce Beneficial Bacteria

Before introducing fish and plants, it's essential to establish beneficial bacteria in the system. These bacteria will convert ammonia from fish waste into nitrates, which plants can absorb. You can kickstart this process by adding a bacteria starter or by introducing a few fish and gradually increasing the number.

7. Plant and Fish Selection

Choose plants and fish that are suitable for your region's climate and your aquaponics setup. Leafy greens, herbs, and certain fruits work well for beginners. Tilapia, goldfish, or catfish are popular fish choices due to their hardiness.

8. Monitor and Adjust

Regularly check the pH levels of the water, ensuring it remains between 6.8 to 7.2. Monitor the health of your fish and plants, adjusting feeding rates and checking for potential pests or diseases.

9. Install Supplemental Systems

Depending on your region, consider installing heating systems, supplemental lighting, or ventilation systems to optimize growth conditions.

10. Regular Maintenance

Clean the fish tank, check the water circulation system, and prune plants as needed. Regular maintenance ensures the longevity and efficiency of your aquaponics greenhouse.

11. Harvest and Enjoy

Once your plants are mature, harvest them, and enjoy fresh, organic produce right from your backyard. If you've chosen edible fish, they can be harvested once they reach the desired size.


In our rapidly evolving world, the aquaponics greenhouse emerges as a beacon of sustainable farming. Merging the best of aquaculture and hydroponics, it offers a holistic approach to producing fresh, organic food while conserving resources. The myriad benefits, from year-round farming to water conservation, make it an invaluable asset for both novices and seasoned agriculturalists. If you're passionate about eco-friendly practices and wish to contribute to a greener future, consider setting up your own aquaponics greenhouse. Dive into this rewarding venture and be a part of the revolution in sustainable agriculture. Let's grow together, sustainably!

Eunice is a sustainability writer whose passion is sharing accessible eco-friendly practices with GreenCitizen's global readership. She enjoys birdwatching during her downtime, often deriving inspiration from nature's resilience. An enthusiastic cyclist, she is also an ardent advocate of eco-friendly transport.

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